Tenures

Thomas Littleton’s Tenures (often New Tenures) was the first textbook written specifically on English land law. It was printed as a Textus Inclusus text, with wide margins for annotations. The language was a dialect of French called “law French”. The earliest copies emerged in the 1480s, but the text was popular throughout the 16th century and in use through the 21st. [http://collation.folger.edu/2015/11/extravagantly-large-paper/ cite]

STC 15749.2 copy 1, showing the large margins. (Photo by Caroline Duroselle-Melish)
STC 15749.2 copy 1, showing the large margins. Photo by Caroline Duroselle-Melish. [http://collation.folger.edu/2015/11/extravagantly-large-paper/ fairuse]

In the work, Littleton attempts to make a classification of rights, each stated clearly at the beginning of a chapter, after which he discussed the various nuances of the application of the principle.

The work is clearly addressed to students of law,[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_de_Littleton#Treatise_on_Tenures cite] and was distinguished by its focus on English law, excluding the civil law that governed continental countries.

STC 15749 copy 2, with the large margins almost entirely filled with notes. (Photo by Caroline Duroselle-Melish)
STC 15749 copy 2 of Tenures, with the large margins almost entirely filled with notes. (Photo by Caroline Duroselle-Melish) [http://collation.folger.edu/2015/11/extravagantly-large-paper/ fairuse]

At the time, copyright was not in force, so the original publisher had to fend off competition from other printers. [https://books.google.com/books?id=DTTVBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA94&lpg=PA94&dq=thomas+littleton+tenures+textbook+history&source=bl&ots=8hhn2k7K3E&sig=vKhLfNjLHomzwm7oM653zNPMk7A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj61_-Y8anJAhWJKogKHRtcDBk4ChDoAQgfMAE#v=onepage&q=thomas%20littleton%20tenures%20textbook%20history&f=false cite]

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The edition displayed above is an example of [[Textus Inclusus]].

Much like [[Suicide Clusters]].

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Textus Inclusus

A medieval approach to intertextuality, also called a “square bracket” text. The main text was laid in the middle, but with significant margins. The margins would then be filled with the annotations of scholars.

Textus Inclusus
Leiden, University Library, BPL MS 2888 (Italy, 13th century), Photo Julie Somers, Turning Over a New Leaf (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

In the photo you can see this executed with a text of the Justinian code, with annotations forming the square brackets. In the middle margin a reader has scribbled some notes of their own.

Legal texts in particular demanded a high degree of annotation.

[ann]

See also [[Aristotelian Notes]]

[[Tenures]] was the first English textbook on land use law, printed as a Textus Inclusus text.

TCP/IP for Energy

The key idea that made the internet possible was the move from centralized circuit-switched networks to distributed packet-switching protocols, where data could “find its way” from sender to receiver.

Now it’s energy that needs to find its way.

The power network… will undergo the same kind of architectural transformation in the next decades that computing and the communication network has gone through in the last two.

We envision a future network with hundreds of millions of active endpoints. These are not merely passive loads as are most endpoints today, but endpoints that may generate, sense, compute, communicate, and actuate. They will create both a severe risk and a tremendous opportunity: an interconnected system of hundreds of millions of distributed energy resources (DERs) introducing rapid, large, and random fluctuations in power supply and demand…

As infrastructure deployment progresses, the new bottleneck will be the need for overarching frameworks, foundational theories, and practical algorithms to manage a fully [data-centric] power network.
This is an algorithms problem! It’s TCP/IP for energy. Think of these algorithms as hybrids of distributed networking protocols and financial trading algorithms — they are routing energy as well as participating in a market.[http://worrydream.com/ClimateChange/ source]

18 Terawatts

The human race uses 18 terawatts, and will for the foreseeable future. So there are basically only two scenarios for investors as a collective:

(a) invest in clean energy immediately; clean energy takes over the $6 trillion global energy market; investors get a nice piece of that.

(b) don’t invest in clean energy immediately; fossil fuels burn past our carbon budget; investors inherit a cinder.

Scenario (a) seems like the most rational plan for everyone, in the long term. The fact that most investors’ short-term incentives are structured to prefer scenario (b) is a critical problem to be solved. Again, it’s not a technology problem, but it’s a blocker that prevents us from getting to the technology problems.[http://worrydream.com/ClimateChange/ quote]

Declining Young Adult Suicide Rates in the 1990s

Suicide rates among young adults declined markedly in the late 1990s. While there are many explanations as to why this pattern emerged, much evidence points to the introduction of newer antidepressants and an increased awareness among medical practitioners of the issue. Others suggested that the fall might have been due to an improving economy.

Screenshot 2015-11-22 at 8.49.11 AM
(source)

In the mid-aughts, suicide rates began to rise again.

Contagion Effects on Campus

Many universities avoid reporting on student deaths as suicides, either out of fear of contagion effects, which have been documented in a number of studies and especially in adolescents, or because of family wishes to protect the student’s privacy. Yet according to both CDC and NIMH guidelines, contagion effects can be mitigated by the way that details of a suicide are reported. Furthermore, some studies show that among youths, any death of a peer, even if not self-inflicted, can increase suicidal thinking and even attempts. Secrecy may thus not be the best solution, but rather informed sensitivity to how information about suicide is shared. The Jed Foundation has compiled a postvention guide for campuses, which is a very useful resource. [link l=http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/suicide/perspectives-college-student-suicide/page/0/2#sthash.SNLp7tY6.dpuf]

Guns and Suicide on Campus

 

The fact that student suicide rates are lower than general population rates is largely attributed to the relative dearth of access to firearms on campus. Guns are the leading method of suicide for men and the second leading method for women in the general population; guns are also the leading method of suicide for male students, but their use is one-third as common among students. [link l=http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/suicide/perspectives-college-student-suicide/page/0/2#sthash.SNLp7tY6.dpuf]

Students on campus, however, also have less suicidal ideation than the general public. From a government report:

From U.S. HHS office. (source)
From U.S. HHS office. (source)

See also [[Suicide Clusters]]

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College Suicides Down Slightly

Contrary to public perception, suicides at colleges may be down slightly.

That’s probably because Schwartz’s account of what’s going on is rather nuanced. While anecdotal accounts of ever-more-mentally-ill students abound, he said that “If you look at things that are a bit more carefully, rigorously tracked, like rates of suicide, actually, when rates of suicide were measured in the Big 10 study of colleges” — which looked at university suicides from 1980 to 1990 — “as compared to two surveys that were done in the 2000s that go up to 2009, the rate seems to have gone down slightly.” [link l=”http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2015/11/myth-of-the-fragile-college-student.html”%5D

Of course, there are some demographic trends that must be controlled for here. White men commit suicide at the highest rates, and the proportion of white men at college has shrunk in the past twenty-five years. On the other hand, the college population is also older, and risk for suicide increases throughout a person’s twenties, which should predict an overall increase in suicide rates among college students.  Likewise, the presence of student veterans, who are also at elevated risk, might drive the numbers up.

There are some other risk factors of note (in particular, the risk for transgender students) but it is difficult to see how they might have shifted over time.

[ann]

The Big Ten Student Suicide Study: A 10-Year Study of Suicides on Midwestern University Campuses. (1997) [link l=”http://clementicenter.rutgers.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Silverman-et-al_The-Big-10-Suicide-Study.pdf”%5D

The lower suicide rate on campus has been attributed to the lack of access to firearms on campus. See [w l=”Guns and Suicide on Campus”]

Colleges sometimes are reluctant to report student deaths as suicides, for fear of [w l=”Contagion Effects on Campus”]

 

 

 

Not Your Company’s Date

Consumers don’t like being asked to register with a company to buy something.

We conducted usability tests with people who needed to buy products from the site. We asked them to bring their shopping lists and we gave them the money to make the purchases. All they needed to do was complete the purchase. We were wrong about the first-time shoppers. They did mind registering. They resented having to register when they encountered the page. As one shopper told us, “I’m not here to enter into a relationship. I just want to buy something.” (medium)

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